Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21

Fred Espenak

Introduction


The Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21 is visible from the following geographic regions:

  • Americas, Europe, Africa, western Asia

The diagram to the right depicts the Moon's path with respect to Earth's umbral and penumbral shadows. Below it is a map showing the geographic regions of eclipse visibility. Click on the figure to enlarge it. For an explanation of the features appearing in the figure, see Key to Lunar Eclipse Figures.

The instant of greatest eclipse takes place on 2078 Oct 21 at 03:08:04 TD (03:06:17 UT1). This is 0.7 days before the Moon reaches perigee. During the eclipse, the Moon is in the constellation Aries. The synodic month in which the eclipse takes place has a Brown Lunation Number of 1927.

The eclipse belongs to Saros 118 and is number 55 of 73 eclipses in the series. All eclipses in this series occur at the Moon’s ascending node. The Moon moves southward with respect to the node with each succeeding eclipse in the series and gamma decreases.

The penumbral lunar eclipse of 2078 Oct 21 is followed two weeks later by a annular solar eclipse on 2078 Nov 04.

Another lunar eclipse occurs one synodic month after the 2078 Oct 21 eclipse. It is the penumbral lunar eclipse of 2078 Nov 19.

These eclipses all take place during a single eclipse season.

The eclipse predictions are given in both Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TD) and Universal Time (UT1). The parameter ΔT is used to convert between these two times (i.e., TD = UT1 + ΔT). ΔT has a value of 106.8 seconds for this eclipse.

The following links provide maps and data for the eclipse.

The tables below contain detailed predictions and additional information on the Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21 .


Eclipse Data: Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21

Eclipse Characteristics
Parameter Value
Penumbral Magnitude 0.81722
Umbral Magnitude-0.14613
Gamma-1.10216
Epsilon 1.1239°
Opposition Times
Event Calendar Date & Time Julian Date
Greatest Eclipse 2078 Oct 21 at 03:08:03.6 TD (03:06:16.8 UT1) 2480327.629361
Ecliptic Opposition 2078 Oct 21 at 02:57:01.3 TD (02:55:14.5 UT1) 2480327.621696
Equatorial Opposition 2078 Oct 21 at 02:11:18.6 TD (02:09:31.8 UT1) 2480327.589952
Geocentric Coordinates of Sun and Moon
2078 Oct 21 at 03:08:03.6 TD (03:06:16.8 UT1)
Coordinate Sun Moon
Right Ascension13h44m30.2s01h46m32.1s
Declination-10°48'15.9"+09°47'51.3"
Semi-Diameter 16'03.8" 16'40.4"
Eq. Hor. Parallax 08.8" 1°01'11.6"
Geocentric Libration of Moon
Angle Value
l -1.4°
b 1.5°
c -19.3°
Earth's Shadows
Parameter Value
Penumbral Radius 1.3002°
Umbral Radius 0.7648°
Prediction Paramaters
Paramater Value
Ephemerides JPL DE406
ΔT 106.8 s
Shadow Rule Danjon
Shadow Enlargement 1.010
Saros Series 118 (55/73)

Explanation of Lunar Eclipse Data Tables

Eclipse Contacts: Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21

Lunar Eclipse Contacts
Eclipse Event Contact Time
TD
Time
UT1
Zenith Latitude Zenith Longitude Position Angle Axis Distance
Penumbral BeginsP101:15:37.601:13:50.809°16.6'N022°48.8'W 198.1° 1.5777°
Greatest EclipseGreatest03:08:03.603:06:16.809°47.9'N049°55.2'W 153.6° 1.1239°
Penumbral EndsP405:00:32.304:58:45.510°18.9'N077°02.0'W 109.0° 1.5785°
Eclipse Durations
Eclipse Phase Duration
Penumbral (P4 - P1)03h44m54.7s

Explanation of Lunar Eclipse Contacts Table

Polynomial Besselian Elements: Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21

Polynomial Besselian Elements
2078 Oct 21 at 03:00:00.0 TD (=t0)
n x y d f1 f2 f3
0 0.42939 -1.04171 -0.1885 1.30022 0.76480 0.27789
1 0.52922 0.26320 -0.0003 0.00017 0.00017 0.00005
2 0.00010 0.00004 0.0000 -0.00000 -0.00000 -0.00000
3 -0.00001 -0.00001 - - - -

At time t1 (decimal hours), each besselian element is evaluated by:

x = x0 + x1*t + x2*t2 + x3*t3 (or x = Σ [xn*tn]; n = 0 to 3)

where: t = t1 - t0 (decimal hours) and t0 = 3.000

Explanation of Besselian Elements

Links for the Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Information

Eclipse Predictions

Predictions for the Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of 2078 Oct 21 were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates were calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass. The predictions are given in both Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TD) and Universal Time (UT1). The parameter ΔT is used to convert between these two times (i.e., UT1 = TD - ΔT). ΔT has a value of 106.8 seconds for this eclipse.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the book Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.