Six Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The Six Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses is organized into a series of sixty 100-year web pages, each one covering a century of lunar eclipses. The table below is an index of links to each of the 100-year catalogs. It also contains some statistics on the number of penumbral, partial, and total eclipses each century.

For an explanation of how eclipses are classified, see Lunar Eclipse Basics. The frequency of each eclipse type, the extremes in eclipse magnitude and duration, and other data for the entire six-millennium period are presented in the Eclipse Statistics tables following the Index to the Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Six Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -2999 to +3000 (3000 BCE to 3000 CE)

The table below summarizes the statistical distribution of lunar eclipse types over this six millennium period. Each line in the table corresponds to one century and gives the breakdown of each eclipse type (penumbral, partial, and total). The date intervals themselves are each a link to a catalog listing complete details for every lunar eclipse in the selected century. The data in these 100 year eclipse tables include the date and time of greatest eclipse[4], ΔT, lunar libration number, Saros series, the eclipse type, quincena solar eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitudes, eclipse phase durations, and local circumstances. For a detailed key and additional information about the catalogs, see: Key to Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.



 


Six Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses

Century Interval Number of Eclipses Number of Penumbral Eclipsesa Number of Partial Eclipses Number of Total Eclipsesb Number of Tetrads
-2999 to -2900 249 89 [88, 1] 99 61 [11, 50] 0
-2899 to -2800 231 84 [75, 9] 69 78 [45, 33] 6
-2799 to -2700 224 82 [71, 11] 58 84 [63, 21] 5
-2699 to -2600 229 73 [70, 3] 77 79 [45, 34] 7
-2599 to -2500 240 84 [83, 1] 94 62 [14, 48] 0
-2499 to -2400 256 99 [99, 0] 97 60 [13, 47] 0
-2399 to -2300 251 91 [90, 1] 100 60 [ 9, 51] 0
-2299 to -2200 240 87 [85, 2] 81 72 [29, 43] 4
-2199 to -2100 227 82 [80, 2] 62 83 [55, 28] 9
-2099 to -2000 230 77 [74, 3] 68 85 [53, 32] 5
-1999 to -1900 242 88 [84, 4] 92 62 [13, 49] 1
-1899 to -1800 255 98 [97, 1] 97 60 [11, 49] 0
-1799 to -1700 254 94 [94, 0] 99 61 [12, 49] 0
-1699 to -1600 244 90 [87, 3] 87 67 [21, 46] 3
-1599 to -1500 226 85 [81, 4] 54 87 [62, 25] 8
-1499 to -1400 228 86 [78, 8] 60 82 [55, 27] 6
-1399 to -1300 239 83 [80, 3] 90 66 [23, 43] 2
-1299 to -1200 251 92 [91, 1] 99 60 [ 9, 51] 0
-1199 to -1100 252 96 [95, 1] 95 61 [13, 48] 0
-1099 to -1000 240 88 [81, 7] 86 66 [18, 48] 4
-0999 to -0900 228 80 [72, 8] 61 87 [59, 28] 7
-0899 to -0800 225 79 [76, 3] 62 84 [57, 27] 7
-0799 to -0700 239 87 [85, 2] 88 64 [21, 43] 1
-0699 to -0600 253 91 [91, 0] 102 60 [10, 50] 0
-0599 to -0500 255 95 [95, 0] 100 60 [11, 49] 0
-0499 to -0400 242 88 [86, 2] 90 64 [19, 45] 1
-0399 to -0300 229 80 [79, 1] 61 88 [54, 34] 7
-0299 to -0200 228 79 [76, 3] 64 85 [55, 30] 6
-0199 to -0100 240 85 [84, 1] 86 69 [21, 48] 3
-0099 to 0000 253 94 [93, 1] 98 61 [11, 50] 0
0001 to 0100 252 94 [93, 1] 101 57 [ 7, 50] 0
0101 to 0200 239 84 [82, 2] 88 67 [23, 44] 3
0201 to 0300 228 83 [75, 8] 63 82 [53, 29] 6
0301 to 0400 227 76 [72, 4] 69 82 [58, 24] 4
0401 to 0500 244 83 [82, 1] 95 66 [18, 48] 3
0501 to 0600 254 97 [96, 1] 95 62 [12, 50] 0
0601 to 0700 255 97 [94, 3] 100 58 [10, 48] 0
0701 to 0800 240 84 [82, 2] 88 68 [23, 45] 3
0801 to 0900 228 79 [74, 5] 60 89 [65, 24] 8
0901 to 1000 230 82 [79, 3] 70 78 [45, 33] 7
1001 to 1100 246 87 [84, 3] 97 62 [14, 48] 0
1101 to 1200 259 98 [98, 0] 102 59 [10, 49] 0
1201 to 1300 251 95 [94, 1] 96 60 [12, 48] 0
1301 to 1400 231 81 [73, 8] 73 77 [41, 36] 6
1401 to 1500 228 80 [77, 3] 65 83 [60, 23] 4
1501 to 1600 233 82 [79, 3] 74 77 [39, 38] 6
1601 to 1700 249 91 [88, 3] 97 61 [11, 50] 0
1701 to 1800 256 98 [98, 0] 98 60 [13, 47] 0
1801 to 1900 249 90 [88, 2] 97 62 [11, 51] 0
1901 to 2000 229 83 [74, 9] 65 81 [48, 33] 5
2001 to 2100 228 86 [81, 5] 57 85 [61, 24] 8
2101 to 2200 238 81 [77, 4] 88 69 [24, 45] 4
2201 to 2300 252 94 [93, 1] 97 61 [11, 50] 0
2301 to 2400 253 95 [95, 0] 98 60 [12, 48] 0
2401 to 2500 237 83 [77, 6] 85 69 [23, 46] 4
2501 to 2600 227 82 [77, 5] 58 87 [64, 23] 8
2601 to 2700 230 81 [80, 1] 70 79 [44, 35] 8
2701 to 2800 241 86 [83, 3] 91 64 [16, 48] 0
2801 to 2900 259 100 [99, 1] 102 57 [ 9, 48] 0
2901 to 3000 249 89 [89, 0] 97 63 [13, 50] 1

a. The first value is the total number of penumbral eclipses, while the values in the square brackets are the number of non-total and total penumbral eclipses.

b. The first value is the total number of total eclipses, while the values in the square brackets are the number of non-central and central total eclipses.

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses: -2999 to 3000 (3000 BCE to 3000 CE)


During the six Millennium period -2999 to 3000 (3000 BCE to 3000 CE[1]), Earth will experience 14442 lunar eclipses. The following table shows the number of eclipses of each type over this period.

Lunar Eclipses: -2999 to 3000
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 14442100.0%
PenumbralN 5227 36.2%
PartialP 5012 34.7%
TotalT 4203 29.1%

Total eclipses can be further classified as either central or non-central:

  • Central - Some portion of the Moon passes directly through the center of Earth’s umbral shadow.
    These are the deepest and longest type of lunar eclipse.
  • Non-Central - The Moon passes completely within Earth’s umbral shadow but misses the center of the umbra.

The statistical distribution of these classes during 6000 years appears in the following table.

Total Eclipses
Classification Number Percent
All 4203100.0%
Central 2461 58.6%
Non-Central 1742 41.4%

There are two to five lunar eclipses in every calendar year. Statistics for the number of eclipses each year during the century are listed below.

Number of Eclipses Per Year
Number of Eclipses Per Year Number of Years
24249
31099
4613
5 39

The lunar eclipses with the longest and shortest durations, and with the largest and smallest magnitudes appear in the following two tables.

Extreme Durations of Lunar Eclipses
Extrema Type Date Duration
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 0318 May 3101h46m36s
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 0767 Apr 1900h01m38s
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2669 Feb 0803h30m03s
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1553 Jul 2500h02m15s
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1322 Nov 2404h56m34s
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 0059 Apr 1600h02m37s
 
Extreme Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses
Extrema Type Date Umbral Magnitude Penumbral Magnitude
Largest Total Lunar Eclipse -2713 May 031.88719 -
Smallest Total Lunar Eclipse 0767 Apr 191.00010 -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1972 Jun 270.99996 -
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1553 Jul 250.00010 -
Largest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -2917 Oct 03 - 1.09884
Smallest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 0059 Apr 16 - 0.00008

When four consecutive lunar eclipses are all total eclipses, the series is known as a tetrad. The following two tables list the tetrads and eclipses occurring during the 20th and 21st centuries, respectively.

Table of Lunar Eclipse Tetrad Series
1901 to 2000
Series Number First Eclipse Second Eclipse Third Eclipse Fourth Eclipse
1 1909 Jun 04 1909 Nov 27 1910 May 24 1910 Nov 17
2 1927 Jun 15 1927 Dec 08 1928 Jun 03 1928 Nov 27
3 1949 Apr 13 1949 Oct 07 1950 Apr 02 1950 Sep 26
4 1967 Apr 24 1967 Oct 18 1968 Apr 13 1968 Oct 06
5 1985 May 04 1985 Oct 28 1986 Apr 24 1986 Oct 17

Table of Lunar Eclipse Tetrad Series
2001 to 2100
Series Number First Eclipse Second Eclipse Third Eclipse Fourth Eclipse
1 2003 May 16 2003 Nov 09 2004 May 04 2004 Oct 28
2 2014 Apr 15 2014 Oct 08 2015 Apr 04 2015 Sep 28
3 2032 Apr 25 2032 Oct 18 2033 Apr 14 2033 Oct 08
4 2043 Mar 25 2043 Sep 19 2044 Mar 13 2044 Sep 07
5 2050 May 06 2050 Oct 30 2051 Apr 26 2051 Oct 19
6 2061 Apr 04 2061 Sep 29 2062 Mar 25 2062 Sep 18
7 2072 Mar 04 2072 Aug 28 2073 Feb 22 2073 Aug 17
8 2090 Mar 15 2090 Sep 08 2091 Mar 05 2091 Aug 29

Two catalogs list all the tetrads and eclipse occurring between -2999 and +3000 (3000 BCE and 3000 CE):


The years containing five lunar eclipses are as follows:

    -2968, -2903, -2447, -2382, -2317, -2252, -1926, -1796, -1731, -1275, -1210, -1145, -1080, -1033, -624, -559, -512, -447, -103, 74, 204, 475, 595, 660, 725, 790, 1181, 1246, 1311, 1676, 1694, 1749, 1879, 2132, 2262, 2400, 2653, 2783, 2968.

The Number of Years with two lunar eclipses in the same month: 69

Footnotes

[1] The terms BCE and CE are abbreviations for "Before Common Era" and "Common Era," respectively. They are the secular equivalents to the BC and AD dating conventions. (See: Year Dating Conventions)

[2] Greatest eclipse is defined as the instant when the center of the Moon passes closest to the axis of Earth's shadows.

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Information

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the book Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.