Saros 139

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 139 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-32 1658-Dec-0920:10:46 36 11 -4219 N t- -1.5785 0.0140-1.0897 37.2 - -
2-31 1676-Dec-2004:11:42 16 8 -3996 N t- -1.5711 0.0284-1.0768 52.9 - -
3-30 1694-Dec-3112:13:57 8 6 -3773 N t- -1.5646 0.0405-1.0653 63.1 - -
4-29 1713-Jan-1120:14:53 9 4 -3550 N t- -1.5570 0.0545-1.0512 73.1 - -
5-28 1731-Jan-2304:14:11 10 4 -3327 N t- -1.5478 0.0710-1.0338 83.3 - -
6-27 1749-Feb-0212:09:39 13 3 -3104 N t- -1.5352 0.0932-1.0099 95.2 - -
7-26 1767-Feb-1319:59:00 15 2 -2881 N t- -1.5175 0.1245-0.9762109.7 - -
8-25 1785-Feb-2403:42:20 17 2 -2658 N t- -1.4947 0.1648-0.9330125.6 - -
9-24 1803-Mar-0811:17:37 12 1 -2435 N t- -1.4654 0.2169-0.8775143.3 - -
10-23 1821-Mar-1818:44:56 11 1 -2212 N t- -1.4293 0.2812-0.8094161.9 - -
11-22 1839-Mar-3002:03:03 5 1 -1989 N t- -1.3854 0.3596-0.7268181.5 - -
12-21 1857-Apr-0909:13:17 7 0 -1766 N t- -1.3347 0.4504-0.6317201.0 - -
13-20 1875-Apr-2016:15:21 -3 0 -1543 N t- -1.2770 0.5541-0.5237220.3 - -
14-19 1893-Apr-3023:08:57 -6 0 -1320 N t- -1.2120 0.6713-0.4022239.2 - -
15-18 1911-May-1305:56:23 12 0 -1097 N t- -1.1414 0.7988-0.2706257.0 - -
16-17 1929-May-2312:37:44 24 0 -874 N t- -1.0651 0.9367-0.1287273.8 - -
17-16 1947-Jun-0319:15:43 28 0 -651 P t- -0.9850 1.0819 0.0202289.0 34.7 -
18-15 1965-Jun-1401:49:26 36 0 -428 P t- -0.9006 1.2351 0.1767302.8100.3 -
19-14 1983-Jun-2508:23:11 53 0 -205 P t- -0.8152 1.3901 0.3348314.8134.6 -
20-13 2001-Jul-0514:56:23 64 0 18 P t- -0.7287 1.5476 0.4947325.2159.3 -
21-12 2019-Jul-1621:31:55 69 0 241 P t- -0.6430 1.7037 0.6531333.8178.0 -
22-11 2037-Jul-2704:09:53 78 3 464 P t- -0.5582 1.8584 0.8095340.9192.4 -
23-10 2055-Aug-0710:53:18 89 7 687 P t- -0.4769 2.0069 0.9594346.4203.4 -
24 -9 2073-Aug-1717:42:41 102 12 910 T t- -0.3998 2.1479 1.1013350.6211.6 50.1
25 -8 2091-Aug-2900:38:25 119 17 1133 T t- -0.3270 2.2810 1.2351353.5217.5 72.9
26 -7 2109-Sep-0907:43:03 137 24 1356 T- p- -0.2608 2.4024 1.3568355.3221.6 85.6
27 -6 2127-Sep-2014:56:04 159 31 1579 T- p- -0.2007 2.5127 1.4672356.3224.2 93.5
28 -5 2145-Sep-3022:19:51 183 39 1802 T- pp -0.1486 2.6083 1.5628356.6225.7 98.2
29 -4 2163-Oct-1205:51:53 209 47 2025 T- pp -0.1026 2.6927 1.6471356.4226.3100.9
30 -3 2181-Oct-2213:35:21 238 57 2248 T- pp -0.0652 2.7613 1.7157355.8226.4102.2
31 -2 2199-Nov-0221:27:11 270 66 2471 T- pp -0.0339 2.8187 1.7731355.0226.1102.7
32 -1 2217-Nov-1405:29:02 304 76 2694 T- pp -0.0100 2.8624 1.8172354.0225.5102.6
33 0 2235-Nov-2513:38:15 341 87 2917 T+ pp 0.0086 2.8647 1.8200352.9224.9102.4
34 1 2253-Dec-0521:55:59 380 98 3140 T+ pp 0.0213 2.8409 1.7973351.7224.2102.0
35 2 2271-Dec-1706:18:50 422 110 3363 T+ pp 0.0303 2.8235 1.7815350.5223.6101.7
36 3 2289-Dec-2714:46:23 467 122 3586 T+ pp 0.0364 2.8113 1.7713349.2222.9101.4
37 4 2308-Jan-0823:16:24 514 135 3809 T+ pp 0.0413 2.8010 1.7637347.9222.3101.1
38 5 2326-Jan-1907:48:31 563 148 4032 T+ pp 0.0455 2.7918 1.7576346.5221.8100.9
39 6 2344-Jan-3016:18:40 616 161 4255 T+ pp 0.0518 2.7782 1.7479345.1221.2100.6
40 7 2362-Feb-1000:47:26 671 175 4478 T+ pp 0.0599 2.7611 1.7351343.6220.6100.3
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 8 2380-Feb-2109:11:42 728 190 4701 T+ pp 0.0726 2.7354 1.7143342.0219.9 99.9
42 9 2398-Mar-0317:32:53 788 205 4924 T+ pp 0.0885 2.7036 1.6877340.3219.2 99.2
43 10 2416-Mar-1401:45:54 850 220 5147 T+ pp 0.1119 2.6579 1.6476338.4218.2 98.1
44 11 2434-Mar-2509:54:37 915 236 5370 T+ pp 0.1395 2.6043 1.5998336.3217.0 96.4
45 12 2452-Apr-0417:54:42 983 252 5593 T+ pp 0.1748 2.5365 1.5379334.0215.4 93.7
46 13 2470-Apr-1601:49:48 1053 268 5816 T+ -p 0.2151 2.4597 1.4670331.4213.2 89.8
47 14 2488-Apr-2609:36:09 1126 285 6039 T+ -p 0.2634 2.3681 1.3811328.2210.3 83.7
48 15 2506-May-0817:18:29 1202 303 6262 T -p 0.3159 2.2690 1.2876324.6206.6 75.1
49 16 2524-May-1900:54:01 1280 320 6485 T -p 0.3745 2.1588 1.1826320.4201.7 61.8
50 17 2542-May-3008:25:20 1360 338 6708 T -a 0.4375 2.0407 1.0694315.4195.5 39.4
51 18 2560-Jun-0915:52:07 1443 357 6931 P -a 0.5048 1.9152 0.9481309.6187.8 -
52 19 2578-Jun-2023:17:03 1529 376 7154 P -a 0.5742 1.7859 0.8227303.0178.4 -
53 20 2596-Jul-0106:40:07 1617 395 7377 P -a 0.6458 1.6529 0.6929295.4166.9 -
54 21 2614-Jul-1314:02:28 1708 415 7600 P -a 0.7184 1.5183 0.5611287.0153.0 -
55 22 2632-Jul-2321:25:58 1802 435 7823 P -a 0.7903 1.3853 0.4301277.7136.4 -
56 23 2650-Aug-0404:51:36 1898 456 8046 P -a 0.8607 1.2554 0.3017267.7116.2 -
57 24 2668-Aug-1412:20:01 1996 477 8269 P -a 0.9291 1.1294 0.1765257.0 90.3 -
58 25 2686-Aug-2519:52:19 2097 498 8492 P -a 0.9947 1.0089 0.0563245.6 51.7 -
59 26 2704-Sep-0603:30:14 2201 519 8715 N -a 1.0560 0.8967-0.0562234.0 - -
60 27 2722-Sep-1711:14:25 2307 542 8938 N -a 1.1122 0.7940-0.1597222.2 - -
61 28 2740-Sep-2719:04:35 2416 564 9161 N -a 1.1637 0.6999-0.2549210.4 - -
62 29 2758-Oct-0903:02:54 2528 587 9384 N -a 1.2091 0.6175-0.3388199.1 - -
63 30 2776-Oct-1911:08:51 2642 610 9607 N -a 1.2487 0.5458-0.4124188.4 - -
64 31 2794-Oct-3019:23:23 2758 633 9830 N -a 1.2817 0.4862-0.4739178.8 - -
65 32 2812-Nov-1003:44:32 2878 657 10053 N -a 1.3096 0.4360-0.5261170.0 - -
66 33 2830-Nov-2112:13:54 2999 682 10276 N -a 1.3313 0.3971-0.5669162.9 - -
67 34 2848-Dec-0120:49:45 3124 706 10499 N -a 1.3483 0.3669-0.5990157.0 - -
68 35 2866-Dec-1305:31:15 3250 731 10722 N -a 1.3612 0.3440-0.6235152.3 - -
69 36 2884-Dec-2314:17:40 3380 756 10945 N -a 1.3704 0.3278-0.6411149.0 - -
70 37 2903-Jan-0423:07:13 3512 782 11168 N -a 1.3776 0.3151-0.6547146.2 - -
71 38 2921-Jan-1507:59:23 3647 808 11391 N -a 1.3827 0.3061-0.6644144.3 - -
72 39 2939-Jan-2616:50:34 3784 835 11614 N -a 1.3890 0.2946-0.6760141.7 - -
73 40 2957-Feb-0601:42:01 3924 862 11837 N -a 1.3952 0.2832-0.6872139.2 - -
74 41 2975-Feb-1710:30:00 4066 889 12060 N -a 1.4046 0.2655-0.7042135.0 - -
75 42 2993-Feb-2719:14:38 4211 916 12283 N -a 1.4167 0.2429-0.7259129.5 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139

Lunar eclipses of Saros 139 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on 1658 Dec 09. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on 2993 Feb 27. The total duration of Saros series 139 is 1334.23 years.

Summary of Saros 139
First Eclipse 1658 Dec 09
Last Eclipse 2993 Feb 27
Series Duration 1334.23 Years
No. of Eclipses 75
Sequence 16N 7P 27T 8P 17N

Saros 139 is composed of 75 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 75100.0%
PenumbralN 33 44.0%
PartialP 15 20.0%
TotalT 27 36.0%

The 75 lunar eclipses of Saros 139 occur in the order of 16N 7P 27T 8P 17N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 139
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 16
Partial P 7
Total T 27
Partial P 8
Penumbral N 17

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 139 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 139
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 2199 Nov 0201h42m40s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 2542 May 3000h39m25s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2055 Aug 0703h23m24s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1947 Jun 0300h34m42s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1929 May 2304h33m46s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1658 Dec 0900h37m10s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2055 Aug 07 - 0.95940
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1947 Jun 03 - 0.02016

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.